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What is the working principle of a calculator

# What is the working principle of a calculator

• Categories:Industry news
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• Time of issue:2021-12-03
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(Summary description)　　The basic principle of a computer is to store programs and program control. In advance, the instruction sequence (called program) and the original data that instruct the computer how to operate must

# What is the working principle of a calculator

(Summary description)　　The basic principle of a computer is to store programs and program control. In advance, the instruction sequence (called program) and the original data that instruct the computer how to operate must

• Categories:Industry news
• Author:
• Origin:
• Time of issue:2021-12-03
• Views:0
Information

How the calculator works

The basic principle of a computer is to store programs and program control. In advance, the instruction sequence (called program) and the original data that instruct the computer how to operate must be sent to the computer's memory storage through the input device. Each instruction clearly stipulates which address the computer fetches from, what operation to perform, and then to which address to wait for steps.

When the computer is running, it first fetches the first instruction from the memory, decodes the controller, and fetches the data from the memory according to the requirements of the instruction to perform specified calculations and logical operations, and then send the results according to the address Go in memory. Next, take out the second instruction and complete the specified operation under the command of the controller. Proceed accordingly. Until the stop instruction is encountered.

The program is stored like data, and the instructions are taken out step by step according to the sequence of the program, and the operations specified by the instructions are automatically completed. This is the most basic working principle of the computer. This principle was first proposed by the American Hungarian mathematician von Neumann in 1945, so it is called the von Neumann principle.

Calculator structure

A calculator is generally composed of arithmetic unit, controller, memory, keyboard , display, power supply and some optional peripherals. The arithmetic unit and controller of the low-end calculator are implemented by digital logic circuits for simple serial operation, and its random access memory has only one or two units for accumulative storage. High-end calculators are implemented by microprocessors and read-only memory for various complex calculation programs, and there are more random storage units to store input programs and data. The keyboard is the input part of the calculator, and generally adopts the contact type or the sensor type. To reduce the size of the calculator, one key often has multiple functions. The display is the output part of the calculator, such as a light-emitting diode display or a liquid crystal display. In addition to displaying calculation results, there are often overflow indications, error indications, etc. The power supply of the calculator adopts an AC converter or a battery, and the battery can be recharged with an AC converter or a solar energy converter. In order to save power, the calculators use large-scale integrated circuits (see complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor integrated circuits) made with CMOS technology, and are equipped with automatic power-off circuits that do not operate at regular intervals. The peripherals available for the calculator include micro printers, cassette tape players and magnetic card players.

From a certain perspective, "computer" in a broad sense includes "electronic calculator". There are also integrated circuits in electronic calculators, but the calculator has simple functions and cheaper prices, which is good for portability and good stability.

In the past, things such as abacus, Napier bones, mathematical table books, engineering slide rules or mechanical adding machines played an auxiliary role in numerical calculations. The term calculator originally refers to professionals who run mathematical calculations with pen and paper. Such semi-manual calculations are burdensome and error-prone.

Modern calculators are powered by electricity, and have a variety of shapes and sizes, from cheap, credit card-sized simple devices to special calculators with printing functions.

Affirmation: The above content is derived from the program system index or shared by netizens. It is for your reference only and does not represent the research views of this website. Please pay attention to the authenticity and authority of the source of the content.

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